Retina (13)

what is Age related macular degeneration?

Increasing age can sometimes affect the central part of the retinal It can be of 2 types.
1)Dry:- causing some substances to get deposited on the posterior part of retina & there by hampering its function and thereby decreasing the vision.
2) Wet ARMD:- Causing growth of new vessels under the retina which can creep in to retina and bleed causing significant loss of vision.

What is the treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy?

It depends upon the stage of the disease in initial sages regular Retinal examination and good BSL control should be sufficient.
In advanced cases laser may be required to prevent bleeding from the new vessels.
In more advanced stage like retinal detachment and persistent bleed in the posterior part of eye Retinal and vitreous surgery may be required.

How do I minimize the effect of Diabetes on my Retina?

1. Regular Blood sugar check-up and regular lineament for diabetic form a physician / Dialectologist.
2. Examination of eye from an ophthalmologist and thereafter follow up for examination of eyes frequently as per advice of the ophthalmologist.
3. Treatment of associated risk factors (mentioned earlier ) from appropriate specialist doctors.

what are the causes (risk factors) for Diabetic retinopathy?

1) Long duration of diabetes.
2) Uncontrolled Blood sugar levels.
3) Associated conditions like
a) Hypertension (increased BP)
b) Nephropathy (Kidney failure)
c) Hyperlipidemia
d) Pregnancy

How does diabetes affects the retina?

Diabetes causes decreased blood supply to the retina which in turn causes new vessels to grow over the retina. But these new vessels are unstable and can rupture and cause bleeding in the posterior part of gauss loss in vision in Diabetes.
It can also cause blood vessels to leak & cause swelling in the important central part of retina-called macula there is also an important cause of decreased vision in Diabetes.

At what age does ARMD occurs?

It is variable.
But can occur above age of 50 years.

what is the treatment of ARMD?

In Dry ARMD cases some tablets consisting of vitamins and micronutrients can be prescribed which are shown to retard the progression of the disease. In wet ARMD the area of growth of new vessels can be treated with lasers.
Another new and effective modality of treatment is injection of drugs like Bevacizumab (Avastin) Ranibizumab, pegetanib sodium?(macugon) (lucentis) in the posterior part of eye.

what are advantages and disadvantages of these drugs as far as treatment of ARMD is concerned.

1) Very effective in regression of the condition.
2) No co-lateral damage (as in laser- if very close to centre of the eye )

1) Costly
2) May need to be repeated frequently at certain intervals to maintain ar get desired outcome.

what are venous occlusions & how do they affect the retina?

Obstruction in the flow of blood in the retinal veins are called venous occlusion.
This in turn causes decreased blood vessels supply to the retina which intern causes growth of new vessels over retina. These vessels are unstable and can bleed in the posterior part of the eye causing loss of vision.
These vessels can also grow over draining channels of the eye thereby hampering fluid drainage from the eye and causing pressure inside the eye to rise –glaucoma.

what is the treatment for venous occlusions?

Milder causes can be observed cases prone to develop complications can be treated with lasers to prevent complications.

what is Retinopathy of prematurity?

Retina of a infant (who has born 9 months of gestation ) is not fully some vision threatening complication like Retinal detachment, bleeding in the posterior part of the eye.

what do we do if the child born prematurely as for eyes are concerned?

Examination of the retina by a retina specialist.
Follow-up examination as per advice of the retina specialists.

what is the treatment of Retinopathy of prematurity?

In milder cases–observation & keeping watch over complications
– If complications occur –lasers can be done.
– In advanced cases surgery of the retina may be required.